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GPL开源代码使用许可协议


本文内容完全转自于网络,只有GNU通用公共许可协议英文原版才具有法律效力。

GNU通用公共许可协议 (GPL version 3)

第三版,2007年6月29日
版权所有 © 2007 自由软件基金会 http://fsf.org/
任何人皆可复制和发布本协议的完整副本,但不得修改

【译者声明】

  This is an unofficial translation of the GNU General Public License into Chinese. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does not legally state the distribution terms for software that uses the GNU GPL–only the original English text of the GNU GPL does that. However, we hope that this translation will help Chinese speakers understand the GNU GPL better.
  这是GNU通用公共许可协议的一份非官方中文翻译,并非自由软件基金会所发表,不适用于使用GNU通用公共许可协议发布的软件的法律声明——只有GNU通用公共许可协议英文原版才具有法律效力。不过我们希望本翻译能够帮助中文读者更好地理解GNU通用公共许可协议。

You may publish this translation, modified or unmodified, only under the terms at https://www.gnu.org/licenses/translations.html.

【引言】

  GNU通用公共许可协议是一份面向软件及其他类型作品的,自由的版权共产协议。
  就多数软件而言,许可协议被设计用于剥夺你分享和修改软件的自由。相反,GNU通用公共许可协议力图保障你分享和修改某程序全部版本的权利——确保自由软件对其用户来说是自由的。我们自由软件基金会将GNU通用公共许可协议用于我们的大多数软件,并为一些其他作品的作者效仿。你也可以将本协议用于你的程序。
  所谓自由软件,强调自由,而非免费。本GNU通用公共许可协议设计用于确保你享有分发自由软件的自由(你可以为此服务收费),确保你可以在需要的时候获得这些软件的源码,确保你可以修改这些软件或者在新的自由软件中复用其中某些片段,并且确保你在这方面享有知情权。
  为保障你的权益,我们需要作一些限定:禁止任何人否认你的上述权利,或者要求你放弃它们。因此,当你分发或修改这些软件时,你有一定的责任——尊重他人的自由。如果你分发这种程序的副本,无论收费还是免费,你必须给予与你同等的权利。你还要确保他们也能收到源码并了解他们的权利。
  采用GNU通用公共许可协议的开发者通过两步保障你的权益:其一,申明软件的版权;其二,通过本协议使你可以合法地复制、分发和修改该软件。
  为了保护每一位作者和开发者,GNU通用公共许可协议指明一点:自由软件并没有品质担保。为用户和作者双方着想,GNU通用公共许可协议要求修改版必须有标记,以免其问题被错误地归到先前版本的作者身上。
  某些设备设计成拒绝用户安装运行修改过的软件,但厂商不受限。这和我们保护用户享有修改软件的自由的宗旨存在根本性矛盾。该滥用协议的模式出现于个人用品领域,这恰是最不可接受的。因此,我们设计了这版GNU通用公共许可协议来禁止这类产品。如果此类问题在其他领域涌现,我们时刻准备着在将来的版本中把规定扩展到相应领域,以保护用户的自由。
  最后,每个程序都持续受到软件专利的威胁。政府不应该允许专利限制通用计算机软件的开发和应用,在做不到这点时,我们希望避免专利应用有效地使自由软件私有化的危险。就此,GNU通用公共许可协议保证专利不能使程序非自由化。

  下文是关于复制、分发和修改的严谨描述和实施条件。

【关于复制、分发和修改的术语和条件】

〇、定义

  “本协议”指GNU通用公共许可协议第三版。
  “版权”也指适用于诸如半导体掩模的其他类型作品的类似法律。
  “本程序”指任何在本协议保护下的有版权的作品。每个许可获得者称作“你”。“许可获得者”和“接收者”可以是个人或组织。
  “修改”一个作品指需要版权许可的复制及对作品全面的或部分的改编行为,有别于制作副本。所产生的作品称作前作的“修改版”,或“基于”前作的作品。
  “受保护作品”指程序或其派生作品。
  “传播”作品指那些未经许可就会在适用版权法律下构成直接或间接侵权的行为,不包括在计算机上运行和私下的修改。传播包括复制、分发(无论修改与否)、向公众公开,以及在某些国家的其他行为。
  “转发”作品指让他方能够制作或者接收副本的行为。仅仅通过计算机网络和用户交互,没有传输副本,则不算转发。
  一个显示“适当的法律声明”的交互式用户界面应包括一个便捷而醒目的可视化特性:(1)显示适当的版权声明;(2)告知用户没有品质担保(提供了品质担保的情况除外),许可获得者可以在本协议约束下转发该作品,及查看本协议副本的途径。如果该界面提供一个命令列表,如菜单,其表项应符合上述规范。

一、源码

  作品的源码指其可修改的首选形式,目标码指所有其他形式。
  “标准接口”指标准化组织定义的官方标准中的接口,或针为某种编程语言设定的接口中为开发者广泛使用的接口。
  可执行作品中的“系统库”不是指整个程序,而是涵盖此等内容:(a)以通常形式和主部件打包到一起却并非后者一部分,且(b)仅为和主部件一起使作品可用或实现某些已有公开实现源码的接口。“主部件”在这里指可执行作品运行依赖的操作系统(如果存在)的必要部件(内核、窗口系统等),生成该作品的编译器,或运行所需的目标码解释器。
  目标码形式的作品中“相应的源码”指所有修改作品及生成、安装、运行(对可执行作品而言)目标码所需的源码,包括控制上述行为的脚本。可是,其中不包括系统库、通用工具、未修改直接用于支持上述行为却不是该作品一部分的通常可得的自由软件。例如,相应的源码包含配合作品源文件的接口定义,以及共享库和作品专门依赖的动态链接子程序的源码。这里的依赖体现为频密的数据交换或者该子程序和作品其他部分的控制流切换。
  相应的源码不必包含那些用户可以通过源码其他部分自动生成的内容。
  源码形式作品的相应源码即其本身。

二、基本许可

  本协议的一切授权都是对本程序的版权而言的,并且在所述条件都满足时不可撤销。本协议明确批准你不受限制地运行本程序的未修改版本。受保护作品的运行输出,仅当其内容构成一个受保护作品时,才会为本协议所约束。如版权法所赋予,本协议承认你正当使用或与之等价的权利。
  只要你获得的许可仍有效,你可以制作、运行和传播那些你并不转发的受保护作品。只要你遵守本协议中关于转发你不占有版权的材料的条款,你可以向他人转发,仅仅以求对方为你做定制或向你提供运行这些作品的工具。那些为你制作或运行这些受保护作品的人,应该在你的指引和控制下,谨代表你工作,即禁止他们在双方关系之外制作任何你提供的受版权保护材料的副本。
  仅当满足后文所述条件时,其他各种情况下的转发才是允许的。不允许再授权行为,而第十条的存在使再授权变得没有必要。

三、保护用户的合法权益免受反破解法限制

  在任何满足1996年12月20日通过的WIPO版权条约第11章要求的法律,或类似的禁止或限制技术手段破解的法律下,受保护作品不应该视为有效技术手段的一部分。
  当你转发一个受保护作品时,你将失去任何通过法律途径限制技术手段破解的权力,乃至于通过行使本协议所予权利实现的破解。你即已表明无心通过限制用户操作或修改受保护作品来确保你或第三方关于禁止技术手段破解的法定权利。

四、转发完整副本

  你可以通过任何媒介发布你接收到的本程序的完整源码副本,但要做到:为每一个副本醒目而恰当地发布版权;完整地保留关于本协议及按第七条加入的非许可性条款;完整地保留免责声明;给接收者附上一份本协议的副本。
  你可以免费或收费转发,也可以选择提供技术支持或品质担保以换取收入。

五、转发修改过的源码版本

  你可以以源码形式转发基于本程序的作品或修改的内容,除满足第四条外还需要满足以下几点要求:

  a)该作品必须带有醒目的修改声明及相应的日期
  b)该作品必须带有醒目的声明,指出其在本协议及任何符合第七条的附加条件下发布。这个要求修正了第四条关于“完整保留”的内容。

  c)你必须按照本协议将该作品整体向想要获得许可的人授权,本协议及符合第七条的附加条款就此适用于整个作品,即其每一部分,不管如何建包。本协议不允许以其他形式授权该作品,但如果你收到别的许可则另当别论。

  d)如果该作品有交互式用户界面,则其必须显示适当的法律声明。然而,当本程序有交互式用户界面却不显示适当的法律声明时,你的作品也不必。

一个在存储或分发媒介上的受保护作品和其他分离的单体作品的联合作品,在既不是该受保护作品的自然扩展,也不以构筑更大的程序为目的,并且自身及其产生的版权并非用于限制单体作品给予联合作品用户的访问及其他合法权利时,称为“聚合体”。在聚合作品中包含受保护作品并不会使本协议影响聚合作品的其他部分。

六、以非源码形式转发

  你可以如第四条和第五条所述那样以目标码形式转发受保护作品,同时在本协议规范下以如下方式之一转发机器可读的对应源码:

  a)目标码通过实体产品(涵盖某种实体分发媒介)转发时,通过常用于软件交换的耐用型实体媒介随同转发相应的源码。

  b)目标码通过实体产品(涵盖某种实体分发媒介)转发时,伴以具有至少三年且与售后服务等长有效期的书面承诺,给予目标码的持有者:
(1)包含产品全部软件的相应源码的常用于软件交换的耐用型实体媒介,且收费不超过其合理的转发成本;或者(2)通过网络免费获得相应源码的途径。

  c)单独转发目标码时,伴以提供源码的书面承诺。本选项仅在你收到目标码及b项形式的承诺的情况下可选。

  d)通过在指定地点提供目标码获取服务(无论是否收费)的形式转发目标码时,在同一地点以同样的方式提供对等的源码获取服务,并不得额外收费。你不以要求接收者在复制目标码的同时复制源码。如果提供目标码复制的地点为网络服务器,相应的源码可以提供在另一个支持相同复制功能的服务器上(由你或者第三方运营),不过你要在目标码处指出相应源码的确切路径。不管你用什么源码服务器,你有义务要确保持续可用以满足这些要求。

  e)通过点对点传输转发目标码时,告知其他节点目标码和源码在何处以d项形式向大众免费提供。

  “面向用户的产品”指(1)“消费品”,即个人、家庭或日常用途的个人有形财产;或者(2)面向社会团体设计或销售,却落入居家之物。在判断一款产品是否消费品时,争议案例的判断将向利于扩大保护靠拢。就特定用户接收到特定产品而言,“正常使用”指对此类产品的典型或一般使用,不管该用户的身份,该用户对该产品的实际用法,以及该产品的预期用法。无论产品是否实质上具有商业上的,工业上的,及非面向消费者的用法,它都视为消费品,除非以上用法代表了它唯一的重要使用模式。

  “安装信息”对面向用户的产品而言,指基于修改过的源码安装运行该产品中的受保护作品的修改版所需的方法、流程、认证码及其他信息。这些信息必须足以保证修改过的目标码不会仅仅因为被修改过而不能继续工作。

  如果你根据本条在,或随,或针对一款面向用户的产品,以目标码形式转发某作品,且转发体现于该产品的所有权和使用权永久或者在一定时期内转让予接收者的过程(无论其有何特点),根据本条进行的源码转发必须伴有安装信息。不过,如果你和第三方都没有保留在该产品上安装修改后的目标码的能力(如作品安装在ROM上),这项要求不成立。   要求提供安装信息并不要求为修改或安装的作品,以及其载体产品继续提供技术支持、品质担保和升级。当修改本身对网络运行有实质上的负面影响,或违背了网络通信协议和规则时,可以拒绝其联网。

  根据本条发布的源码及安装信息,必须以公共的文件格式(并且存在可用的空开源码的处理工具)存在,同时不得对解压、阅读和复制设置任何密码。

七、附加条款

  “附加许可”用于补充本协议,以允许一些例外情况。合乎适用法律的对整个程序适用的附加许可,应该被视为本协议的内容。如果附加许可作用于程序的某部分,则该部分受此附加许可约束,而其他部分不受其影响。

  当你转发本程序时,你可以选择性删除副本或其部分的附加条款。(附加条款可以写明在某些情况下要求你修改时删除该条款。)在你拥有或可授予恰当版权许可的受保护作品中,你可以在你添加的材料上附加许可。

  尽管已存在本协议的其他条款,对你添加到受保护作品的材料,你可以(如果你获得该材料版权持有人的授权)以如下条款补充本协议:

  a)表示不提供品质担保或有超出十五、十六条的责任。

  b)要求在此材料中或在适当的法律声明中保留特定的合理法律声明或创作印记。

  c)禁止误传材料的起源,或要求合理标示修改以别于原版。

  d)限制以宣传为目的使用该材料的作者或授权人的名号。

  e)降低约束以便赋予在商标法下使用商品名、商品标识及服务标识。

  f)要求任何转发该材料(或其修改版)并对接收者提供契约性责任许诺的人,保证这种许诺不会给作者或授权人带来连带责任。

  此外的非许可性附加条款都被视作第十条所说的“进一步的限制”。如果你接收到的程序或其部分,声称受本协议约束,却补充了这种进一步的限制条款,你可以去掉它们。如果某许可协议包含进一步的限制条款,但允许通过本协议再授权或转发,你可以通过本协议再授权或转发加入了受前协议管理的材料,不过要同时移除上述条款。

  如果你根据本条向受保护作品添加了调控,你必须在相关的源文件中加入对应的声明,或者指出哪里可以找到它们。

  附加条款,不管是许可性的还是非许可性的,可以以独立的书面协议出现,也可以声明为例外情况,两种做法都可以实现上述要求。

八、终止授权

  除非在本协议明确授权下,你不得传播或修改受保护作品。其他任何传播或修改受保护作品的企图都是无效的,并将自动中止你通过本协议获得的权利(包括第十一条第3段中提到的专利授权)。

  然而,当你不再违反本协议时,你从特定版权持有人处获得的授权恢复:(1)暂时恢复,直到版权持有人明确终止;(2)永久恢复,如果版权持有人没能在60天内以合理的方式指出你的侵权行为。

  再者,如果你第一次收到了特定版权持有人关于你违反本协议(对任意作品)的通告,且在收到通告后30天内改正,那你可以继续享此有授权。

  当你享有的权利如本条所述被中止时,已经从你那根据本协议获得授权的他方的权利不会因此中止。在你的权利恢复之前,你没有资格凭第十条获得同一材料的授权。

九、持有副本无需接受协议

  你不必为接收或运行本程序而接受本协议。类似的,仅仅因点对点传输接收到副本引发的对受保护作品的辅助性传播,并不要求接受本协议。但是,除本协议外没有什么可以授权你传播或修改任何受保护作品。如果你不接受本协议,这些行为就侵犯了版权。因此,一旦修改和传播一个受保护作品,就表明你接受本协议。

十、对下游接收者的自动授权

  每当你转发一个受保护作品,其接收者自动获得来自初始授权人的授权,依照本协议可以运行、修改和传播此作。你没有要求第三方遵守该协议的义务。

  “实体事务”指转移一个组织的控制权或全部资产、或拆分或合并组织的事务。如果实体事务导致一个受保护作品的传播,则事务中各收到作品副本方,都有获得前利益相关者享有或可以如前段所述提供的对该作品的任何授权,以及从前利益相关者处获得并拥有相应的源码的权利,如果前利益相关者享有或可以通过合理的努力获得此源码。

  你不可以对本协议所授权利的行使施以进一步的限制。例如,你不可以索要授权费或版税,或就行使本协议所授权利征收其他费用;你也不能发起诉讼(包括交互诉讼和反诉),宣称制作、使用、零售、批发、引进本程序或其部分的行为侵犯了任何专利。

十一、专利

  “贡献人”指通过本协议对本程序或其派生作品进行使用认证的版权持有人。授权作品成为贡献人的“贡献者版”。

  贡献人的“实质专利权限”指其拥有或掌控的,无论是已获得的还是将获得的全部专利权限中,可能被通过某种本协议允许的方式制作、使用或销售其贡献者版作品的行为侵犯的部分,不包括仅有修改其贡献者版作品才构成侵犯的部分。“掌控”所指包括享有和本协议相一致的专利再授权的权利。

  每位贡献人皆其就实质专利权限,授予你一份全球有效的免版税的非独占专利许可,以制作、使用、零售、批发、引进,及运行、修改、传播其贡献者版的内容。

  在以下三段中,“专利许可”指通过任何方式明确表达的不行使专利权(如对使用专利的明确许可和不起诉专利侵权的契约)的协议或承诺。对某方“授予”专利许可,指这种不对其行使专利权的协议或承诺。

  如果你转发的受保护作品已知依赖于某专利,而其相应的源码并不是任何人都能根据本协议从网上或其他地方免费获得,那你必须(1)以上述方式提供相应的源码;或者(2)放弃从该程序的专利许可中获得利益;或者(3)以某种和本协议相一致的方式将专利许可扩展到下游接收者。“已知依赖于”指你实际上知道若没有专利许可,你在某国家转发受保护作品的行为,或者接收者在某国家使用受保护作品的行为,会侵犯一项或多项该国认定的专利,而这些专利你有理由相信它们的有效性。
  如果根据一项事务或安排,抑或与之相关,你转发某受保护作品,或通过促成其转手以实现传播,并且该作品的接收方授予专利许可,以使指可以使用、传播、修改或转发该作品的特定副本,则此等专利许可将自动延伸及每一个收到该作品或其派生作品的人。

  如果某专利在其涵盖范围内,不包含本协议专门赋予的一项或多项权利,禁止行使它们或以不行使它们为前提,则该专利是“歧视性”的。如果你和软件发布行业的第三方有合作,合作要求你就转发受保护作品的情况向其付费,并授予作品接收方歧视性专利,而且该专利(a)与你转发的副本(或在此基础上制作的副本)有关,或针对包含该受保护作品的产品或联合作品,你不得转发本程序,除非参加此项合作或取得该专利早于2007年3月28日。

  本协议的任何部分不应被解释成在排斥或限制任何暗含的授权,或者其他在适用法律下对抗侵权的措施。

十二、不得牺牲他人的自由

  即便你面临与本协议条款冲突的条件(来自于法庭要求、协议或其他),那也不能成为你违背本协议的理由。倘若你不能在转发受保护作品时同时满足本协议和其他文件的要求,你就不能转发本程序。例如,当你同意了某些要求你就再转发问题向你的转发对象收取版税的条款时,唯一能同时满足它和本协议要求的做法便是不转发本程序。

十三、和GNU Affero通用公共许可协议一起使用

  尽管已存在本协议的一些条款,你可以将任何受保护作品与以GNU Affero通用公共许可协议管理的作品关联或组合成一个联合作品,并转发。本协议对其中的受保护作品部分仍然有效,但GNU Affero通用公共许可协议第十三条的关于网络交互的特别要求适用于整个联合作品。

十四、本协议的修订版

  自由软件联盟可能会不定时发布GNU通用公共许可协议的修订版或新版。新版将秉承当前版本的精神,但对问题或事项的描述细节不尽相同。

  每一版都会有不同的版本号,如果本程序指定其使用的GNU通用公共许可协议的版本“或任何更新的版本”,你可以选择遵守该版本或者任何更新的版本的条款。如果本程序没有指定协议版本,你可以选用自由软件联盟发布的任意版本的GNU通用公共许可协议。

  如果本程序指定代理来决定将来那个GNU通用公共许可协议版本适用,则该代理的公开声明将指导你选择协议版本。

  新的版本可能会给予你额外或不同的许可。但是,任何作者或版权持有人的义务,不会因为你选择新的版本而增加。

十五、不提供品质担保

  本程序在适用法律范围内不提供品质担保。除非另作书面声明,版权持有人及其他程序提供者“概”不提供任何显式或隐式的品质担保,品质担保所指包括而不仅限于有经济价值和适合特定用途的保证。全部风险,如程序的质量和性能问题,皆由你承担。若程序出现缺陷,你将承担所有必要的修复和更正服务的费用。

十六、责任范围

  除非适用法律或书面协议要求,任何版权持有人或本程序按本协议可能存在的第三方修改和再发布者,都不对你的损失负有责任,包括由于使用或者不能使用本程序造成的任何一般的、特殊的、偶发的或重大的损失(包括而不仅限于数据丢失、数据失真、你或第三方的后续损失、其他程序无法与本程序协同运作),即使那些人声称会对此负责

十七、第十五条和第十六条的解释

  如果上述免责声明和责任范围声明不为地方法律所支持,上诉法庭应采用与之最接近的关于放弃本程序相关民事责任的地方法律,除非本程序附带收费的品质担保或责任许诺。

【附录:如何将上述条款应用到你的新程序】

  如果你开发了一个新程序,并希望它能最大限度地为公众所使用,最好的办法是将其作为自由软件,以使每个人都能在本协议约束下对其再发布及修改。

  为此,请在附上以下声明。最安全的做法是将其附在每份源码的开头,以便于最有效地传递免责信息。同时,每个文件至少包含一处“版权”声明和一个协议全文的链接。

  <用一行来标明程序名及其作用>

  版权所有(C)<年份> <作者姓名>

  本程序为自由软件,在自由软件联盟发布的GNU通用公共许可协议的约束下,你可以对其进行再发布及修改。协议版本为第三版或(随你)更新的版本。

  我们希望发布的这款程序有用,但不保证,甚至不保证它有经济价值和适合特定用途。详情参见GNU通用公共许可协议。

  你理当已收到一份GNU通用公共许可协议的副本,如果没有,请查阅http://www.gnu.org/licenses/

  同时提供你的电子邮件地址或传统的邮件联系方式。

  如果该程序是交互式的,让它在交互模式下输出类似下面的一段声明:

  <程序名> 第69版,版权所有(C)<年份> <作者姓名>

  本程序从未提供品质担保,输入’show w’可查看详情。这是款自由软件,欢迎你在满足一定条件后对其再发布,输入’show c’可查看详情。


  例子中的命令’show w’和’show c’应用于显示GNU通用公共许可协议相应的部分。当然你也可以因地制宜地选用别的方式,对图形界面程序可以用“关于”菜单。



  如果你之上存在雇主(你是码农)或校方,你还应当让他们在必要时为此程序签署放弃版权声明。详情参见http://www.gnu.org/licenses/

  本GNU通用公共许可协议不允许把你的程序并入私有程序。如果你的程序是某种库,且你想允许它被私有程序链接而使之更有用,请使用GNU较宽松通用公共许可协议。决定前请先查阅http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html



翻译:阮坤良peterrk@pku.edu.cn

参考:
[繁体中文译本] https://www.gnu.org/licenses/translations.html


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  1. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  1. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  1. Patents.

A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”.

A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  1. No Surrender of Others’ Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  1. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

  1. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  1. Disclaimer of Warranty.

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  1. Limitation of Liability.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

  1. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

<program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands show w' andshow c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.



“Our mission is to preserve, protect and promote the freedom to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer software, and to defend the rights of Free Software users.”

The Free Software Foundation is the principal organizational sponsor of the GNU Operating System. Support GNU and the FSF by buying manuals and gear, joining the FSF as an associate member, or making a donation, either directly to the FSF or via Flattr.

Please send general FSF & GNU inquiries to gnu@gnu.org. There are also other ways to contact the FSF. Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent to webmasters@gnu.org.
Please see the Translations README for information on coordinating and submitting translations of this article.
Copyright notice above.
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Copyright Infringement Notification
Updated: $Date: 2016/11/18 06:31:41 $

英文内容原始资料来源:https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html



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