Scientific researcher, you should know these English abbreviations

(in alphabetical order)

abbr. : abbreviate vt.

abbr. : abbreviation(s) n.

approx. : approximately

aq : Aqua [Latin] .

aq : Aqueous adj.

ca. : Circa [Latin] (= about). ca. 71% ; ca. 2*4 μm or c. ,e.g., c. 71%

e.g. : exampli gratia[Latin], (= for example) e.g., **in the geological past (e.g., Pagani et al., 2005).

et al. : Et Alii [Latin] (=and others).

etc. : Et Cetera[Latin] (=and the rest, =and so on).

ex. : Example

i.e. : Id Est [Latin] (=That Is). daytime, i.e. visual,feeders.

Appendix: Other commonly used English abbreviations

ASAP : As Soon As Possible.

BTW : By The Way.

DOI: Digital Object Identifier. URL is

IF :impact factor. Calculation method can refer to:

N.B.:Nota Bene [Latin] (=Note Well, Warning).

PhD : Philosophiae Doctor (doctor of philosophy).

PI : Principal investigator(项目负责人 in Chinese).

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